reformer who criticized abuses in the church and died as a martyr
for his beliefs.
Huss was associated
with introduction of John Wycliffe's ideas into Bohemia and like Wycliffe
advocated reform of abuses. Huss advocated that layfolk receive both bread
and wine in the sacrament. He stressed the doctrine of predestination
and called for poverty and simplicity in the church. He claimed that the
pope could not exercise physical power and attacked the granting of indulgences.
Summoned to appear before the Council
(1414-1418), he was condemned. Meanwhile his followers had begun administering
the Lord's Supper under the forms of both bread and wine, contrary to
the prevailing medieval practice of administering the bread alone to lay
communicants. For this reason they were often called Utraquists
(from Latin sub utraque, "in both kinds") or Calixtines
(from Latin calix, "chalice"). Following the condemnation, Huss
was burned at the stake as a heretic in 1415. Martin
Luther was later charged by Roman catholic opponents with reviving
the errors of Huss. Hussite teaching continued in Unitas Fratrum
or Unity of Bohemian Brethren, a movement antecedent to the Moravian Brethren
of the modern era.