for advanced education in the medieval cities.
Church, Oxford University
As the medieval
cities grew, students began to gather around teachers, first in cathedral
schools and later in other schools. At the same time a similar course
of study began to emerge throughout Europe. When both students and teachers
organized into guilds, the structures of the university began to evolve.
Soon there was a recognized progression for students who began as "hearers,"
before becoming "bachelors," "masters," or "doctors." The oldest universities
in Europe date from the twelfth century, but did not flourish until the
thirteenth. Paris and Oxford
were the principal universities for those studying theology throughout
the middle ages.