Middle Ages

Institutions for advanced education in the medieval cities.

Christ Church, Oxford University

As the medieval cities grew, students began to gather around teachers, first in cathedral schools and later in other schools. At the same time a similar course of study began to emerge throughout Europe. When both students and teachers organized into guilds, the structures of the university began to evolve. Soon there was a recognized progression for students who began as "hearers," before becoming "bachelors," "masters," or "doctors." The oldest universities in Europe date from the twelfth century, but did not flourish until the thirteenth. Paris and Oxford were the principal universities for those studying theology throughout the middle ages.

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